Radiative effects in gap opening by planets in protoplanetary disks
Alexandros Ziampras, Wilhelm Kley, Cornelis P. Dullemond
University of Tuebingen, ITA Heidelberg
Recent ALMA observations revealed concentric annular structures in several young, class-II objects. Some have been modeled numerically with a single embedded planet assuming a locally isothermal equation of state, an assumption often justified in the irradiation-dominated outer disk regions. We compare locally isothermal and radiative disks similar to HD 163296 and AS 209 with embedded planets. We show that the disk thermodynamics can impact the number of rings and the contrast of spirals produced by a planet. Radiative effects can suppress features visible in locally isothermal simulations. These results suggest the need for multiple planets to explain the ring-rich structures in such systems.